Research Exclusive: Acupressure and Meridian Massage Boost Weight in Premature Infants

Research Exclusive: Acupressure and Meridian Massage Boost Weight in Premature Infants

Research Exclusive:
Acupressure and Meridian Massage Boost Weight in Premature Infants

Acupressure and meridian massage applied three times per day for 10 days resulted in significant weight gain among premature infants, according to recent research.
In the study, “Acupressure and meridian massage: combined effects on increasing body weight in premature infants,” 40 premature infants were randomly assigned to receive either standard care, along with acupressure and meridian massage, or standard care alone.
In order to be eligible for participation, the infants had to have a gestation age of less than 34 weeks, a birth age greater than seven days and a weight range of 1,400 to 1,800 grams, among other criteria.
The standard care for both groups included close observation of vital signs, daily bathing and weight evaluation, feeding every three hours and other routine methods of care for premature infants.
For those subjects assigned to the acupressure and meridian massage group, the hands-on intervention was performed three times per day for 15 minutes per session. The sessions were conducted one hour before feeding.
Each session involved acupressure at Zhongwan (RN-12), Zusanli (ST-36) and Yongquan (KI-1) points, as well as abdominal rubbing, spleen and stomach
meridian massage, and kneading at the points along the spine of the bladder meridian. According to researchers, the massage did not cause distress to the infants and was focused on these particular acupoints to promote gastrointestinal and physical development.
Outcome measures for this study included each infant’s body weight and the volume of milk ingested, both of which were measured and recorded daily.
Results of the research revealed no significant difference in the amount of breast milk or formula consumed between the massage and standard-care groups. However, the average daily weight gain of the massage group was significantly higher than that of the control group.
“As a result of our findings, we concluded that acupressure and meridian massage have a significant effect on body weight gain in premature infants,” said the study’s authors.
Authors: Li-Li Chen, Yi-Chang Su, Chia-Hsien Su, Hung-Chih Lin and Hsien-Wen Kuo.
Sources: School of Nursing, School of Chinese Medicine, Department of Nursing, Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Environmental Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. Originally published in Journal of Clinical Nursing (2008) 17, 1174-1181.

How integrative therapies can help

At Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine,
Dr. Liz Fraser performs healing hands therapy
on patient Nancy McLaughlin. — Sean M. Haffey / UT photos

How integrative therapies can help

Evidence-based research shows these integrative treatments may help reduce or prevent certain health problems.

Acupuncture (and therefore Shiatsu/Acupressure): Chemotherapy nausea, heart failure, back and joint pain, fertility problems, migraine headaches

Biofeedback: Incontinence, headaches, chronic pain

Chiropractic manipulation: Back and neck pain, headaches

Guided imagery: Depression, high blood pressure, insomnia, anxiety

Herbal therapy: Arthritis, asthma, headaches

Meditation: Stress, anxiety, high blood pressure, depression

Nutritional counseling: Diabetes, heart disease

Therapeutic massage: Back and muscle pain, high blood pressure, headaches

Stanley Westreich wasn’t always a believer in integrative medicine. In fact, he admits he thought it was “a little hocus-pocus.” But that was before integrative medicine helped turn his health and life around.

Integrative medicine combines conventional Western medical treatments with alternative or complementary therapies such as acupuncture, massage, biofeedback and stress reduction techniques. The emphasis is on prevention and the goal is to treat the whole person — body, mind and spirit.

Following the noninvasive Healing Hearts program at Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, Westreich lost 35 pounds, gained energy and feels “better than I have in 20 years,” said the 75-year-old Rancho Santa Fe resident, who had suffered from atrial fibrillation problems that landed him in the hospital on more than one occasion.

“The integrative medicine model puts me at the center of my health care and makes me responsible for it,” said Westreich, whose integrative program included exercise, nutrition counseling and stress management.

“Most doctors are good at treating disease, but it’s very expensive,” he said. “Integrative medicine will prevent the disease from happening. I believe it’s the wave of the future.”

Hospitals seem to agree, judging by the number of medical centers now offering integrative services.

According to a recent survey by the American Hospital Association and the Samueli Institute, a nonprofit research group focusing on complementary medicine, 42 percent of the 714 hospitals that responded offered at least one such therapy in 2010, a significant jump from just five years earlier, when 27 percent of hospitals offered such treatments.

All hospitals in San Diego County offer some type of integrative therapy. Health systems such as the University of California San Diego Medical Center and Palomar Pomerado Health only recently coordinated their integrative medical specialists into a more focused system treating patients on a referral and appointment basis.

At Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, founded in 1997 and the oldest integrative medicine center in California, an entire department and separate facility is devoted to complementary therapies.

According to the survey, the top treatments offered at outpatient centers were massage therapy, acupuncture and guided imagery. The last uses mental techniques, including visualization, to achieve such goals as reducing stress.

Why are so many conventional medical centers hopping on the integrative bandwagon? Medical experts offer several reasons.

As the American health care system grows progressively stressed and truly patient-centered care becomes increasingly difficult to find, more people are looking for alternatives to the traditional health care model. There’s a growing recognition, along with more evidence-based research, that some integrative therapies are very effective in many instances. Acupuncture has been shown to ease the nausea associated with chemotherapy. Stress management techniques, including meditation, successfully lower blood pressure. And, therapeutic massage can ease back pain and stress.

Initially, some physicians were skeptical about working integrative medicine into the mainstream. However, those therapies with evidence-based research behind them have gained acceptance and are the ones most often incorporated into hospitals.

“For heart attacks, Western medicine excels. But, Western medicine has nothing to offer in the way of prevention, except, ‘here’s a pill,’ ” said Dr. Mimi Guarneri, medical director and founder of Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine. “In integrative medicine, we get to the underlying cause of the heart attack. So, we say let’s deal with the stress, let’s start exercising and get some weight off. We don’t just throw a pill at it.”

Doctors are hearing more patients say they want to be an active participant in their health care, not always an option in conventional medicine.

“Patients don’t want to be sitting in the backseat of their medical delivery system. They want to be in the driver’s seat and physicians want that, too,” said Dr. Alan Larson, medical director of the Center for Integrative Medicine at Palomar Pomerado Health. “In integrative medicine, the patient is in control most of the time.”

Integrative medicine is also seen by many experts as a key to successful health care reform. The complementary therapies that keep people healthy may be the new strategy as providers increasingly become part of accountable care organizations, in which they’re paid to take responsibility for a patient’s overall health rather than provide services a la carte.

“Integrative medicine is the only plan in town for the prevention of disease. Prevention is the key to better health care so integrative medicine is the key,” Guarneri said. “We’re not just treating diseases when they occur, but we’re looking at how we can change a patient’s risk or reverse the disease.”

There’s also the money factor. Since most integrative therapies are not covered by insurance, some people might speculate that hospitals offering these services have the opportunity to attract patients and make more money. According to the most recent report from the National Center for Health Statistics, Americans spent $33.9 billion on integrative therapies in 2007 — money that came out of their own pockets.

However, integrative specialists say integrative medicine is more about saving money than making money.

“The cash aspect is just a drop in the bucket. But, when complementary treatments hasten the recovery of patients and they’re able to leave the hospital sooner and not return with recurrences, now that’s big ticket savings for us,” Larson said.

Guarneri calls our current health care system “the perfect storm.”

“Chronic disease management is costing the country $2.5 trillion a year for diseases that are preventable,” she said. “We spend more money on drugs than ever before. Of all the pills produced in the world, 47 percent of them are consumed in America. We can’t keep this up. We need to turn the ship around and focus on prevention first.”

What does the future hold for integrative medicine?

Besides the likelihood of it being offered in more hospitals and medical centers, some integrative experts foresee increasing insurance coverage for complementary therapies. For the first time, Medicare is now paying for the noninvasive Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease, the first scientifically proven program combining aerobic exercise, stress management techniques and a nutrition plan to prevent and reverse heart disease.

Most integrative treatments are offered on an outpatient basis, however integrative physicians are hopeful that the therapies soon will be available to inpatients and in the emergency room.

“We want to get integrative medicine into more (hospital) departments and show them the difference it can make in patients’ lives,” Larson said. “Although it takes a while to adopt new philosophies, in 10 or 20 years, I think what we (currently) know as integrative medicine will be conventional medicine.”

Photo of

Written by
R.J. Ignelzi
noon, Dec. 6, 2011

Integrating Shiatsu and Massage for Holistic Maternity Care

Integrating Shiatsu and Massage for Holistic Maternity Care, by Suzanne Yates – Shiatsu and Massage for Pregnancy

 Shiatsu offers holistic wellness care and support throughout your pregnancy and beyond

Integrating Shiatsu and Massage for Holistic Maternity Care

by Suzanne Yates

This article first appeared in Massage & Bodywork April/May 2003

Shiatsu may sound exotic, but it has a long tradition in Western massage. Indeed one of the first books which influenced the growth of the modern massage movement in 19th century Europe was the translation of an ancient Chinese massage text, The Cong Fu of Lao-Tse. Shiatsu evolved over thousands of years, influenced by massage in China. More recent developments include muscle energy techniques correlated with acupuncture points.   Now many massage books include a chapter on Eastern methodologies or at least refer to shiatsu and/or acupuncture points.  Within the literature on massage and pregnancy, massage therapists Elaine Stillerman  and Carole Osborne-Sheets write about the use of the acupuncture points during pregnancy and in labor, and refer to certain points which may be contraindicated.

However, shiatsu is often simplified in the form of “press this or that point for this amount of time.” This implies a lack of understanding of how this fabulous system works. It has a far greater application than simply being used for specific symptomatic conditions, although this can also be very effective. Through its practical applications, shiatsu includes not only the use of specific points but also numerous ways of applying pressure, working on meridian pathways, stretching and stroking. Through its theory, shiatsu offers practitioners a way of understanding the energetic changes that happen in a body.

As we all know, pregnancy is a time of great change. In the first trimester these changes are mainly hormonal, rather than visibly physical, culminating in the establishment of the support systems for the baby – namely the placenta and amniotic sac. The baby develops at an incredible rate during these first 12 weeks and all the main organ systems are established, although the baby is still only 2 inches long. We are aware of the anatomical and physiological explanations for these changes and adapt our massage work accordingly. The mother may be feeling extremely nauseous and you need to be careful not to trigger the nausea.

You may have learned some acupuncture points, most notably PC6, which you include in your massage. This point has been quite well researched in its effectiveness in treating nausea.  However, have you ever worked with a woman in the first trimester whose energy levels are so low that she’s too tired to move her body? You may feel confident doing some breathing and relaxation techniques with her. You may want to just hold her, resting at various points on her body. Yet do you sometimes still wish there was something else you could offer that didn’t necessarily involve working with physical structures? There is a way of enabling the mother to connect with her body and her baby – and begin to come to terms with the changes inherent in pregnancy.

Understanding Shiatsu

An understanding of the mother’s and baby’s energy systems can add an extra dimension to your work. Using the Eastern concepts of meridians, especially the core body systems of the conception vessel and the governing vessel, can help us to understand how to work with the mother and baby in safe and effective ways throughout the pregnancy.

You may already be familiar with the concept of meridians – these are the pathways which transmit energy from the organs throughout the body. Common meridians include the heart protector or pericardium, lung, stomach or spleen. These form a portion of the 12 meridians which move qi pronounced “chee” (or energy) through the body. This is where you get the qi of reiki, tai chi or qigong. This is our daily energy – which we get mainly from breathing (air Qi) and eating (food qi), and flows in our body in 24-hour cycles.

The main regulator of this daily energy is the circuit of the governing vessel (GV) and conception vessel (CV), also known as the du mai and ren mai. These meridians form the two halves of the cell and are the first meridians to form in the fetus. The conception vessel runs up the front midline of the body – from CV 1 in the center of the perineum, right up through the center of the symphysis pubis, right through the midline of the abdomen and chest ending in CV 24 below the mouth where it enters the body. In women, it has an internal pathway that flows down to the kidneys and the uterus. The other half of this circuit is the governing vessel which begins at GV 1 midway between the tip of the anus, and flows up the midline of the spine, through the center of the sacrum, the lumbar, thoracic and cervical vertebrae, rising up the center of the skull, to the top of the head to GV 20 and then over the center of the forehead, over the tip of the nose to GV 28 above the lip where it then follows the same internal pathway as the conception vessel. There is in fact another branch to this circuit that is called the penetrating vessel which links the two, flowing to each of the conception vessel at the front and flowing up to lumbar 3 along with the GV.

These meridians regulate the flow or qi in the main meridian system, especially in times of change or shock. The governing vessel is the ultimate regulator of the yang energy of the body and the conception vessel the main regulator of yin energy. The Chinese characters for yin and yang represent the shady and sunny sides of the mountain. These two concepts represent a movement of energy from day to night as opposed to two opposite forces – one cannot exist without the other. They relate to both physical and emotional qualities within the body. Yin relates to the inside of the body and to slower changes. Yang relates to the outside of the body and faster reactions like nervous system responses. At conception, yin is the egg and yang is the sperm. Emotionally, yin is the inward reflective space – the ultimate yin is expressed through the element of water. Water can be the energy behind will power and ambition, driving us forward like a river breaking through its banks. It can also get stuck in a negative, depressive state like a stagnant pond. Pregnancy is the ultimate state of yin – hidden growth in a watery environment. In our culture we are encouraged to be more yang, to be outwardly active. To do so we need to support the yin qualities of pregnancy. Birth is the movement from yin to yang, from the inside to the outside – new life and growth represented by the energy of wood. Learning to tune into these different energies in pregnancy helps the mother process the emotional and physical challenges of pregnancy and labor.

Ancient Energy

The CV and GV vessels have another important function. They circulate the essence or jing – our ancestral energy. We inherit essence from our parents at the time of conception – and the quality of our essence, our constitutional/genetic inheritance is influenced by the energy of our parents’ parents and their parents too. It is this energy that underlines organic change and growth and governs the reproductive system. In women it is said to represent in energetic terms the hypothalamus, pituitary (governed by the governing vessel) and ovarian (regulated by the CV) axis. It flows in seven year cycles for women and eight year cycles for men.

During pregnancy there are many demands made on this circuit, especially with the conception vessel, which has a close relationship with the reproductive organs and the recti muscles. The linea negra, the skin darkening on the abdominal midline common in pregnancy, is indicative of these changes. Physical changes in the spine due to the adaptations the mother has to make as the baby grows and her body shape changes are regulated by the governing vessel.

This system provides the ultimate support for the pregnancy. If this system is not operating smoothly, the pregnancy may be inhibited through infertility or miscarriage. There may be problems with the pubic bone (symphysis pubis diastasis), extreme separation of the recti muscles (abdomini recti diastasis), backaches, exhaustion or lack of connection to the baby, to name but a few. By considering this system in our work we have a route intro these core changes for both mother and baby during pregnancy.

Much of this type of work involves holding points along the pathways of the meridians, soft palming and deep tissue techniques, the use of breathing and visualization. There are techniques for working with the kidneys and the uterus – which include the placenta and the baby. These don’t feel invasive for mother or baby. Indeed it often helps them to switch into a space of deep relaxation. From this space, many “problems” dissolve.

You may know of techniques for turning breech or posterior babies, (notably, the use of BL 7, BL 60 and sacral work).  Combining these techniques with the core meridian work increases their effectiveness. Sometimes I think the baby turns because it feels reassured by this energetic connection. Sometimes mother or baby has to make an emotional shift at a profound level. I know of babies that have turned into a breech position at the same time the mother experienced a sudden shock (like her mother or partner dying or maybe she is simply afraid of giving birth). The baby senses this stress and also feels afraid and turns away from the birth canal. The Chinese say that a breech baby is holding on to the mother’s heart. Working the bladder channel helps address the fear; fear and shock are often processed by the governing and conception vessels which link closely with the kidneys.

Using Pressure

Much of shiatsu’s focus is the use of pressure – sometimes this can involve deep pressure, as in the use of deep sacral work in the first trimester for alleviating backaches, shifting the baby’s position or for pain relief during labor. Sometimes this pressure is physically light, but energetically deep. It is very much about making connections in the right kind of way – which is why simply finding points, counting and holding is not the most effective use of this tool. Individual bodies respond very differently – for one person, 10 seconds of holding may be too long and for another half an hour may not be long enough. There are many different styles of shiatsu that emphasize slightly different aspects. In the tradition in which I work, it is important to follow the principle of using two hands – a mother hand (yin balancing hand) and working hand (yang balancing hand). The practitioner needs to work from a connection within their center, their hara (abdomen), in order to make energetic connections with their pregnant clients. This involves focusing with the breath and connecting deeply to the internal organs.

Shiatsu is traditionally done on a clothed client, but it doesn’t have to be. With the application of the correct principles, it can be done as effectively directly on the skin using oils. Practiced in this way, it blends in well with massage and the practitioner can employ shiatsu as part of a massage session. However, sometimes working through the clothes or towels can be useful for women who feel vulnerable. It can sometimes be useful during certain stages of labor.

Traditionally, shiatsu is done on the floor or on a cotton futon. Again this need not be the case – it can be done equally well on a table. However, working on the floor can be a useful practical technique with pregnant clients. Have you ever worked with a heavily pregnant mom who finds it difficult to get up on the table, who keeps wanting to shift around and never seems comfortable? Lying on the floor offers her another option. You can also work with her sitting in a chair, but she can’t relax as much as if she was lying down. Using the futon, all massage techniques can be done on the floor and you can integrate some great passive movements for legs, back and arms. This also gives the therapist an opportunity to work with the mother in the all-fours position, which is excellent for backaches and helping encourage the baby to settle in the anterior position. You can even integrate some simple exercises, such as pelvic tilting, as part of the massage session when the mother gets restless.

An added benefit of working on the floor and through the clothes is the client’s partner and/or the baby’s father can support the mother and be part of this circuit of energy. After the baby arrives, it allows the mother to cuddle up with the baby, even breast feed, while the therapist works.
The Way Forward

I would argue that all forms of bodywork have a common tradition, evolving from societies where people lived intimately influenced by the forces of nature and in which touch played a crucial role, not only in healing, but in how people related to each other. Over the centuries different ways of explaining and codifying these systems of touch evolved. Today, we are more aware of these different traditions and how each one has developed its own rules and practice and training. I feel the way forward is to re-integrate the traditions, especially when it concerns integrating Eastern energy systems with Western anatomy and physiology. There is so much that shiatsu can offer the massage practitioner, particularly in pregnancy when many of our more physical techniques are less appropriate and when we do need ways of being able to work with the baby as well as the mother to address the emotional aspects.

The challenge as a therapist is to see the pregnant body as a marvellous integration of the physical and emotional whole which includes the baby. We need to work with a holistic understanding of the body, appreciating how all systems are interlinked and work not with fear, but a marvel of the wisdom of the body, helping women to be more in touch with themselves and their babies.


(1) Travell, J.G., and Sminons, D., Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual, Volume 2 Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1992, 5.
Weinntraub, M. Shiatsu, Swedish massage and trigger point suppression in spinal pain syndrome. American Journal of Pain Management 1992 April; 2 (2): 74-78.

(2) Cash, M., and Greetham, A.N., Sport and Remedial Massage. Ebury Press; 1996. 226-243.

(3) Stillerman, E., Mother Massage, Dell Publishing Co.; 1992.

(4) Osborne-Sheets, C., Pre- and perinatal massage therapy. Body Therapy Associates; 1999.

(5) Steele, N.M., French, J., Gatherer-Boyles, J., et al., Effect of acupressure by Sea-Bands on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and NeoNatal Nursing 2001; 30 (1): 61-70.

(6) Cardini, F., Weixin, H., Moxibustion for correction of breech presentation: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1998 Nov. 11; 280 (18): 1580-4.

Contact Well Mother. Copyright © Well Mother 1990-2011. All rights reserved.